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The format of the outputted date e.types.string.php">string . See the formatting options below. There are also several predefined date constants that may be used instead, so for example DATE_RSS contains the format string 'D, d M Y H:i:s'.



The following characters are recognized in the format parameter string
formatcharacterDescriptionExample returned values
Day --- ---
d Day of the month, 2 digits with leading zeros 01 to 31
D A textual representation of a day, three letters Mon through Sun
j Day of the month without leading zeros 1 to 31
l(lowercase 'L') A full textual representation of the day of the week Sunday through Saturday
N ISO-8601 numeric representation of the day of the week (added in PHP 5.1.0) 1 (for Monday) through 7(for Sunday)
S English ordinal suffix for the day of the month, 2 characters stndrd or th. Works well with j
w Numeric representation of the day of the week 0 (for Sunday) through 6(for Saturday)
z The day of the year (starting from 0) 0 through 365
Week --- ---
W ISO-8601 week number of year, weeks starting on Monday (added in PHP 4.1.0) Example: 42 (the 42nd week in the year)
Month --- ---
F A full textual representation of a month, such as January or March January throughDecember
m Numeric representation of a month, with leading zeros 01 through 12
M A short textual representation of a month, three letters Jan through Dec
n Numeric representation of a month, without leading zeros 1 through 12
t Number of days in the given month 28 through 31
Year --- ---
L Whether it's a leap year 1 if it is a leap year, 0otherwise.
o ISO-8601 year number. This has the same value as Y, except that if the ISO week number (W) belongs to the previous or next year, that year is used instead. (added in PHP 5.1.0) Examples: 1999 or 2003
Y A full numeric representation of a year, 4 digits Examples: 1999 or 2003
y A two digit representation of a year Examples: 99 or 03
Time --- ---
a Lowercase Ante meridiem and Post meridiem am or pm
A Uppercase Ante meridiem and Post meridiem AM or PM
B Swatch Internet time 000 through 999
g 12-hour format of an hour without leading zeros 1 through 12
G 24-hour format of an hour without leading zeros 0 through 23
h 12-hour format of an hour with leading zeros 01 through 12
H 24-hour format of an hour with leading zeros 00 through 23
i Minutes with leading zeros 00 to 59
s Seconds, with leading zeros 00 through 59
u Microseconds (added in PHP 5.2.2) Example: 654321
Timezone --- ---
e Timezone identifier (added in PHP 5.1.0) Examples: UTCGMT,Atlantic/Azores
I (capital i) Whether or not the date is in daylight saving time 1 if Daylight Saving Time,0 otherwise.
O Difference to Greenwich time (GMT) in hours Example: +0200
P Difference to Greenwich time (GMT) with colon between hours and minutes (added in PHP 5.1.3) Example: +02:00
T Timezone abbreviation Examples: ESTMDT ...
Z Timezone offset in seconds. The offset for timezones west of UTC is always negative, and for those east of UTC is always positive. -43200 through 50400
Full Date/Time --- ---
c ISO 8601 date (added in PHP 5) 2004-02-12T15:19:21+00:00
r » RFC 2822 formatted date Example: Thu, 21 Dec 2000 16:01:07 +0200
U Seconds since the Unix Epoch (January 1 1970 00:00:00 GMT) See also time()
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visudo - edit the sudoers file 


visudo-c ] [ -f sudoers ] [ -q ] [ -s ] [ -V ]


visudo edits the sudoers file in a safe fashion, analogous to vipw(8). visudo locks thesudoers file against multiple simultaneous edits, provides basic sanity checks, and checks for parse errors. If the sudoers file is currently being edited you will receive a message to try again later.

There is a hard-coded list of editors that visudo will use set at compile-time that may be overridden via the editor sudoers Default
variable. This list defaults to the path to vi(1) on your system, as determined by theconfigure script. Normally, visudo does not honor the EDITOR
environment variables unless they contain an editor in the aforementioned editors list. However, if visudo is configured with the ---with-enveditor flag or the enveditor Default
variable is set in sudoersvisudo will use any the editor defines by EDITOR
. Note that this can be a security hole since it allows the user to execute any program they wish simply by setting EDITOR

visudo parses the sudoers file after the edit and will not save the changes if there is a syntax error. Upon finding an error, visudo will print a message stating the line number(s) where the error occurred and the user will receive the ``What now?'' prompt. At this point the user may enter ``e'' to re-edit the sudoers file, ``x'' to exit without saving the changes, or ``Q'' to quit and save changes. The ``Q'' option should be used with extreme care because if visudo believes there to be a parse error, so will sudo and no one will be able to sudo again until the error is fixed. If ``e'' is typed to edit the sudoers file after a parse error has been detected, the cursor will be placed on the line where the error occurred (if the editor supports this feature). 


visudo accepts the following command line options:

Enable check-only mode. The existing sudoers file will be checked for syntax and a message will be printed to the standard output detailing the status of sudoers. If the syntax check completes successfully, visudo will exit with a value of 0. If a syntax error is encountered, visudo will exit with a value of 1.

Specify and alternate sudoers file location. With this option visudo will edit (or check) the sudoers file of your choice, instead of the default, @sysconfdir@/sudoers. The lock file used is the specified sudoers file with ``.tmp'' appended to it.

Enable quiet mode. In this mode details about syntax errors are not printed. This option is only useful when combined with the -c flag.

Enable strict checking of the sudoers file. If an alias is used before it is defined,visudo will consider this a parse error. Note that it is not possible to differentiate between an alias and a hostname or username that consists solely of uppercase letters, digits, and the underscore ('_') character.

The -V (version) option causes visudo to print its version number and exit.


sudoers file busy, try again later.
Someone else is currently editing the sudoers file.

/etc/sudoers.tmp: Permission denied
You didn't run visudo as root.

Can't find you in the passwd database
Your userid does not appear in the system passwd file.

Warning: undeclared Alias referenced near ...
Either you are using a {User,Runas,Host,Cmnd}_Alias before defining it or you have a user or hostname listed that consists solely of uppercase letters, digits, and the underscore ('_') character. If the latter, you can ignore the warnings (sudo will not complain). In -s (strict) mode these are errors, not warnings.